Vous êtes ici : Accueil » Civilization » US » Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln

D 16 février 2009     A Englishpager    


Pour perfectionner votre compréhension de l’écrit, vous pouvez lire cet article :



Biography :
The son of a Kentucky frontiersman, Abraham Lincoln had to struggle to live and learn. Five months before receiving his party’s nomination for President, he sketched his life :

"I was born Feb. 12, 1809, in Hardin County, Kentucky. My parents were both born in Virginia, of undistinguished families—second families, perhaps I should say. My mother, who died in my tenth year, was of a family of the name of Hanks.... My father ... removed from Kentucky to ... Indiana, in my eighth year.... It was a wild region, with many bears and other wild animals still in the woods. There I grew up.... Of course when I came of age I did not know much. Still somehow, I could read, write, and cipher ... but that was all."

JPEG - 24.4 ko

Lincoln made extraordinary efforts to attain knowledge while working on a farm, splitting rails for fences, and keeping store at New Salem, Illinois. He was a captain in the Black Hawk War, spent eight years in the Illinois legislature, and as a lawyer rode the circuit of courts for many years. His law partner said of him, "His ambition was a little engine that knew no rest."

He married Mary Todd, and they had four boys, only one of whom lived to maturity. In 1858 Lincoln ran against Stephen A. Douglas for Senator. He lost the election, but in debating with Douglas he gained a national reputation that won him the Republican nomination for President in 1860.

Lincoln warned the South in his Inaugural Address : "In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The government will not assail you.... You have no oath registered in Heaven to destroy the government, while I shall have the most solemn one to preserve, protect and defend it."

Lincoln thought secession illegal, and was willing to use force to defend Federal law and the Union. When Confederate batteries fired on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, and forced its surrender, he called on the states for 75,000 volunteers. Four more slave states joined the Confederacy but four remained within the Union. The Civil War had begun.

As President, he built the new Republican Party into a strong national organization. Further, he rallied most of the northern Democrats to the Union cause. On January 1, 1863, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation that declared forever free those slaves within the Confederacy.

Lincoln never let the world forget that the Civil War involved an even larger issue. This he stated most movingly in dedicating the military cemetery at Gettysburg : "that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."

Lincoln won re-election in 1864, as Union military triumphs heralded an end to war. In his planning for peace, the President was flexible and generous, encouraging Southerners to lay down their arms and join speedily in reunion.

The spirit that guided him was clearly that of his Second Inaugural Address, now inscribed on one wall of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D. C. : "With malice toward none ; with charity for all ; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in ; to bind up the nation’s wounds.... "

On Good Friday, April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, DC, by John Wilkes Booth, an actor who thought he was helping the South. The opposite was the result, for with Lincoln’s death, the possibility of peace with magnanimity died.

President Lincoln died at 7:22 the next morning. Following a funeral at the White House, his casket was viewed by millions as it was carried on a special train back to Illinois. He was buried May 4 in Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield.
(abridged from www.lincolnbicentennial.gov)

JPEG - 27.7 ko

Quotes :

"Free labor has the inspiration of hope ; pure slavery has no hope." (1854)

"A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half-slave and half-free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved - I do not expect the house to fall - but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing or all the other." (1858)

"Labor is prior to, and independent of, capital. Capital is only the fruit of labor, and could never have existed if labor had not first existed. Labor is the superior of capital, and deserves much the higher consideration." (1861)

"I don’t believe in a law to prevent a man from getting rich ; it would do more harm than good. [But] while we do not propose any war upon capital, we do wish to allow the humblest man an equal chance to get rich with everybody else." (1860)

"My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it ; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. What I do about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union ; and what I forbear, I forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the Union. I shall do less whenever I shall believe what I am doing hurts the cause, and I shall do more whenever I shall believe doing more will help the cause." (1862)

"Whenever I hear any one arguing for slavery I feel a strong impulse to see it tried on him personally." (1865)
 
 

 

Dans la même rubrique

17 novembre 2018 – Frances Glessner Lee

4 novembre 2018 – Thanksgiving

19 octobre 2018 – Halloween

18 septembre 2018 – Norman Rockwell

8 mars 2018 – Native Americans History

Rechercher

Accès rédacteurs


Liens


ARGOS
College FM
College FM
College FM
College FM
College FM

Dictionaries
WordReference
Lexilogos
Lexilogos

Scoop It
Menu
Menu
Menu

Wikipedia
British Council
BBC Learn English
BBC Learn English Tube
VOA Learn English
Cambridge English
Crash Course
Crass Course
Kahoot It
Join Quizizz

RSS 2.0 twitter google facebook youtube

Articles récents


Statistiques

  • old English Page : 125043 visites
  • depuis le 01/05/2016 : 168895 visites